Multiplayer (HATS) - Guide



Follow these steps to get started:

These steps are already complete in the sample project. The instructions here explain the process.


Related Features

More details are covered in related feature page(s).

Matchmaking - Connect remote players in a room
Multiplayer - Allow game makers to create multi-user experiences

Step 1. Setup Project

Here are instructions to setup the Beamable SDK and "GameType" content.

1. Install the Beamable SDK and Register/Login• See Step 1 - Getting Started for more info.
2. Open the Content Manager Window• Unity → Window → Beamable → Open Content Manager
3. Create the "GameType" content

• Select the content type in the list
• Press the "Create" button
• Populate the content name
4. Configure "GameType" content

• Populate the Max Players field

Note: The other fields are optional and may be needed for advanced use cases like Matchmaking.

5. Save the Unity Project• Unity → File → Save Project

Best Practice: If you are working on a team, commit to version control in this step
6. Publish the content• Press the "Publish" button in the Content Manager Window

Step 2. Plan the Multiplayer Game Design

See Multiplayer (Plan the Multiplayer Game Design) for more info.

Step 3. Create the Game Code

This step includes the bulk of time and effort in the project.

1. Create C# game-specific logic• Implement game logic
• Handle player input
• Render graphics & sounds

Note: This represents the bulk of the development effort. The details depend on the specifics of the game project.

Step 4. Create the Multiplayer Code

In this section you will find some partial code snippets. Download the project to see the complete code.

1. Create C# Multiplayer-specific logic• Create event objects
• Send outgoing event
• Handle incoming events

Note: Its likely that game makers will add multiplayer functionality throughout development including during step #3. For sake of clarity, it is described here as a separate, final step #4.
2. Play the Scene01Intro Scene• Unity → Edit → Play
3. Enjoy the game!• Can you beat the opponents?
4. Stop the Scene• Unity → Edit → Stop

Multiplayer Game Simulation

HATS uses a deterministic simulation networking model. All network messages (HatsGameMessage) are broadcast to every client and fed into a local per-client instance of GameSimulation. The simulation, in turn, locally generates a series of HatsGameEvent to be consumed by MonoBehaviours that manage graphics and audio per GameObjects,

SpawnEventHandler, for instance, instantiates a new player GameObject when receiving a PlayerSpawnEvent;

public override IEnumerator HandleSpawnEvent(PlayerSpawnEvent evt, Action callback)
	Debug.Log("Spawning player " + evt.Player.dbid);
	yield return null;
	var playerGob = Instantiate(playerPrefab, GameProcessor.BattleGridBehaviour.Grid.transform);
	playerGob.Setup(GameProcessor, evt.Player);
	var localPosition = GameProcessor.BattleGridBehaviour.Grid.CellToLocal(evt.Position);
	playerGob.transform.localPosition = localPosition;

Local player input is captured and converted to network messages via PlayerMoveBuilder:

public void CommitMove()
	moveBuilderState = PlayerMoveBuilderState.COMMITTED;
	NetworkDriver.DeclareLocalPlayerAction(new HatsPlayerMove
		Dbid = PlayerDbid,
		TurnNumber = GameProcessor.Simulation.CurrentTurn,
		Direction = MoveDirection,
		MoveType = MoveType

Keep in mind that all messages are broadcast to every client, including the one that sent the message in the first place.

The GameProcessor spins up the game simulation (GameSimulation) and the network layer (MultiplayerGameDriver), connecting both with each other:

public void StartGame(List<long> dbids, BotProfileContent botProfileContent)
	var messageQueue = MultiplayerGameDriver.Init(roomId, framesPerSecond, new List<long>());

	var players = dbids.Select(dbid => new HatsPlayer
		dbid = dbid

	Simulation = new GameSimulation(BattleGridBehaviour.BattleGrid, framesPerSecond, _configuration, players, botProfileContent, roomId.GetHashCode(), messageQueue);

It continuously relays game events to local handlers:

foreach (var evt in Simulation.PlayGame())
	currentTurn = Simulation.CurrentTurn;
	if (evt == null)
		yield return null;

	switch (evt)
		case PlayerSpawnEvent spawnEvt:
			yield return EventHandlers.Handle(this, spawnEvt, handler => handler.HandleSpawnEvent);
		case PlayerMoveEvent moveEvt:
			yield return EventHandlers.Handle(this, moveEvt, handler => handler.HandleMoveEvent);



Related Guides

A common use case for the feature is covered in the guides. It is recommended to read the guide before continuing with the sample steps below.

Leaderboards - Display and update per-game leaderboards

Leaderboard-related functionality is handled via LeaderboardScreenController. It retrieves the current leaderboard in one essential call to Beamable's leaderboard SDK:

view = await beamable.LeaderboardService.GetBoard(LeaderboardRef, 0, 50, focus:;

In GameOverController, the winning player updates the leaderboard when receiving a GameOverEvent:

if (isWinner)
	_beamableAPI.LeaderboardService.IncrementScore(_leaderboardRef.Id, 1);



Related Guides

A common use case for the feature is covered in the guides. It is recommended to read the guide before continuing with the sample steps below.

Inventory - Define player inventory and offer items in a store

HATS offers players to buy characters and hats, both being purely decorative items without any effect on gameplay. Players need to earn Gems to buy these items. All items are subtypes of Beamable's ItemContent and are managed by the Beamable Content Manager. Transactions and available shop listings are handled by CharacterPanelController, going hand in hand with PlayerInventory:

public async Task PopulateCharacterShop()
	var beamable = await Beamable.API.Instance;
	var shop = await beamable.CommerceService.GetCurrent(CharacterShopRef.Id);
	var playerCharacters = await PlayerInventory.GetAvailableCharacters();
	foreach (var listing in shop.listings)
		var itemContentId = listing.offer.obtainItems[0].contentId;
		var hasCharacterAlready = playerCharacters.Any(character => character.Id.Equals(itemContentId));
		if (hasCharacterAlready) continue; // skip this listing because the player already owns the take
public static async Task<List<CharacterContent>> GetAvailableCharacters()
	var beamable = await Beamable.API.Instance;
	var characters = await beamable.InventoryService.GetItems<CharacterContent>();

Additional Experiments

Here are some optional experiments game makers can complete in the sample project.

Did you complete all the experiments with success? We'd love to hear about it. Contact us.

Beginner-Give yourself gems without winning even a single gameHint: There is one default Currency type
BeginnerAll ScenesChange game asset to create a new theme (SciFi, Fantasy, ...)• Replace (or add) all visible textures and sprites in UI and the game itself
• If you add assets, update all image references accordingly
IntermediateAll ScenesAdd more characters, hats or tile types• Find the birthday hat and offer a normal and a drunk version
• To add a new character, both Prefab and Content need to be updated. Start with duplicating and adapting an existing character Prefab.
• Tile types: Have a look at BattleGrid.

Hint: All of that requires Content changes
IntermediateScene02GameMake a surrendered player carry a white flag• A player can be dead in two ways now
• Adapt the way that players are rendered accordingly
AdvancedScene02GameAdd arrow frenzy• Add a powerup that shoots arrows in all directions at once. It should only last one turn.
• Little Twist: Shoot arrows sequentially, in clockwise order
AdvancedAll ScenesMake the game 3D• For starters, leave GameSimulation alone and work your way through BattleGrid first


This section contains any advanced configuration options and workflows.


In multiplayer gaming, matchmaking is the process of choosing a room based on criteria (e.g. "Give me a room to play in with 2 total players of any skill level"). Beamable supports matchmaking through its matchmaking service.

See Matchmaking for more info.

For HATS, a single catch-all GameType is used, allowing the player to play against up to three bots or other human contenders, waiting 10 seconds until the match starts.


MatchmakingBehaviour handles all Matchmaking-related functionality. As soon as a match is found, the 'Scene02Game' scene is loaded:

MatchmakingHandle = await _api.Experimental.MatchmakingService.StartMatchmaking(
	maxWait: TimeSpan.FromSeconds(_configuration.OverrideMaxMatchmakingTimeout),
	updateHandler: handle =>
		// No updates available at the moment when searching a match.
	readyHandler: handle =>
		Debug.Assert(handle.State == MatchmakingState.Ready);

		var dbids = MatchmakingHandle.Status.Players;
		var gameId = MatchmakingHandle.Status.GameId;
		var matchId = handle.Match.matchId;

		Debug.Log($"Match is ready! Found matchID={matchId} gameId={gameId}");
		Debug.Log($"Starting match with DBIDs={string.Join(",", dbids.ToArray())}");

		List<long> dbidsAsLong = dbids.Select(i => long.Parse(i)).ToList();
		HatsScenes.LoadGameScene(gameId, dbidsAsLong);
	timeoutHandler: handle =>
		Debug.Log($"Matchmaking timed out! state={handle.State}");
		IsSearching = false;

Game Security

See Multiplayer (Game Security) for more info.

Playing "Against Yourself"

See Multiplayer (Playing Against Yourself) for more info.

Randomization and Determinism

See Multiplayer (Randomization and Determinism) for more info.

Learning Resources

These learning resources provide a better way to build live games in Unity.

1. Download the HATS Sample Game
2. Open in Unity Editor (Version 2020.3.11f1)
3. Open the Beamable Toolbox
4. Sign-In / Register To Beamable. See Step 1 - Getting Started for more info
5. Open the Scene01Intro Scene
6. Play The Scene: Unity → Edit → Play
7. Click "Play" for an easy start. Or do a standalone build of the game and run the build. Then run the Unity Editor. In both running games, choose "Play" to play against yourself.
You need to rebuild Addressable Asset Groups before doing a standalone build. To build content in the Editor, open the Addressables Groups window, then select Build > New Build > Default Build Script.
8. Enjoy!

Note: Supports Mac & Windows and includes the Beamable SDK